In various Aayahs in Quran, the Muslims are asked not to befriend the Kuffar. These Aayahs are used by people of other faiths to slander the Muslims that your Quran stops you from having good relations with people of other faiths and generates animosity between Muslims and followers of other religions.
We also find a lot of examples where our Prophet and the Khulfa-e-Rashideen treated the Kuffar very well. In fact one delegation of the Kuffar was accommodated in Masjid-e-Nabvi, when they came to Madina. So apparently there is a contradiction between the Quran and the Sunnah.
In this blog, I will try to explain the parameters of having relationships with the Kuffar, in light of Maariful Quran, which is one of the most famous Urdu Tafsir, written by Mufti Muhammad Shafi.
3:28 – The believers must not take the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers. And whoever does that has no relation with Allah whatsoever, unless you (do so) as a protective measure (in order to) save yourself from them. Allah warns you of Himself, for unto Allah is the return. (Translation From Noble Quran By Mufti Taqi Usmani)
In Ma’ariful Quran, Mufti Muhammad Shafi, lists four different kinds of relationships that a person can have with another person or a group can have with another group.
1. Muwalat – This degree of relationship comes from the heart, it is that of affection and love involving intense emotional commitment. This sort of friendship is restricted to true Muslims. A Muslim is not permitted to have this kind of relationship with a non-Muslim.
2. Muwasat – This is a relationship based on sympathy, kindness and concern. In includes charitable help and support, condolence and consolation and any well-meaning attitude of wishing well. Barring disbelievers who are at war with Muslims, this kind of relationship is permissible with all other non-Muslims, as explained in Surah al-Mumtahinah (60:8)
3. Mudarat – This means relations based on customary cordiality, adequacy in courtesy, pleasant and friendly behavior and mannerly politeness. This too is permissible with all non-Muslims, specially so, when the objective is to present them with some beneficial aspect of the faith, or when they are guests, or the purpose is to stay safe from any possible harm coming through them.
4. Muamalat – This means dealings and transactions in business or employment or wages or industry or technology. These too are permissible with non-Muslims, except when such dealings harm the general body of Muslims. It is on this basis that Muslim jurists have prohibited the sale of arms to disbelievers who are at war with Muslims. However, trade and activities allied to it have been permitted. Also allowed is having them as employees or being employed in their plants and institutions.
The above mentioned explanation will hopefully remove the concern of Non-Muslims and some Muslims that Islam forbids all kinds of relations/friendship with Non-Muslims. Also it will attempt to define the parameters of our relations with Non-Muslims.
Finally, there might be a question in our minds that why are close friendships forbidden with Non-Muslims. The reason is that human beings are different from animals, birds or trees, in the sense that Human Beings are sent to this world with a particular purpose. The purpose is to live in this world, as per the parameters laid down by Allah. Muslims are the ones who realize this purpose and then live accordingly. While Non Muslims do not share the same purpose. Hence a close friendship between Muslims and Non-Muslims will result in Muslims getting deviated from their goal which is to live according to the wishes of Allah and seek HIS pleasure in all that they do.
6:162 Say, “My Prayer, my offering, my life and my death are for Allah, the Lord of all the worlds” (Translation From Noble Quran By Mufti Taqi Usmani)
And Allah knows best.
For Full Explanation on the said topic read Ma’ariful Quran By Mufti Muhammd Shafi. Click here to download the specific PDF. Read from Page 50.